Indonesia Landscape on Women Leadership & The Family Business
In the heart of Indonesia's economic landscape lies a powerhouse - family businesses. Contributing significantly to the nation's economic growth, these enterprises constitute a staggering 95% of companies, boasting a collective turnover of approximately US$ 5–10 million and holding assets totaling US$ 134 billion, equivalent to 25% of Indonesia's GDP (PwC, 2014). As pivotal contributors to the country's economic vitality, family businesses play an irreplaceable role in shaping its financial trajectory.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2004) champions the idea of gender neutrality in entrepreneurship. Recognizing women's unique qualities as indispensable for the survival and prosperity of family businesses (Salganicoff, 1990), the OECD challenges traditional norms, fostering an environment conducive to the creation and expansion of businesses, even in the context of family enterprises.
Hamilton (2006) and Anggadwita et al. (2017) echo this sentiment, emphasizing the decisive role that women play in family businesses. Women, as successors, navigate the delicate balance between family and business, actively avoiding conflicts while remaining loyal and flexible in their roles for the prosperity of the family business (Martinez Jimenez, 2009).
The “Kretek Gadis” Master: Transformational Leadership at the Forefront
Jeng Yah's journey unfolds as a prime example of transformational leadership, a framework that emphasizes inspiring and motivating others towards a common vision. Her character transcends the conventional boundaries of female leadership, challenging the established norms of the 1960s Indonesian culture. By embodying the qualities of a transformational leader—inspiration, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, and idealized influence—Jeng Yah becomes a catalyst for change within the kretek industry.
Breaking Stereotypes with Authentic Leadership
Authentic leadership theory underscores the importance of genuineness and self-awareness in leaders. Jeng Yah, as portrayed in "Gadis Kretek," personifies authentic leadership. Her authenticity shines through as she navigates the intricacies of the kretek business, embracing her identity and defying societal expectations. This authenticity becomes a source of inspiration for those around her, challenging stereotypes and fostering an environment where leadership is not bound by gender norms.
Gender-Inclusive Leadership: A Situational Approach
The situational leadership model suggests that effective leadership is contingent upon the leader's ability to adapt to different situations. Jeng Yah's character displays a remarkable situational awareness, adapting her leadership style to the challenges presented by the patriarchal norms of the kretek industry. Whether it's challenging the status quo or nurturing collaboration, Jeng Yah exemplifies a versatile leadership approach that transcends gender constraints.
The Mentor-Protegé Dynamic: A Leadership Catalyst
One cannot overlook the role of mentorship in Jeng Yah's leadership journey. Drawing from the mentor-protegé dynamic, Jeng Yah's relationship with Raja serves as a guiding force. This aligns with leadership development theories, emphasizing the pivotal role mentors play in shaping the leadership capabilities of the next generation. Raja's mentorship becomes a driving force behind Jeng Yah's growth, echoing the significance of supportive relationships in leadership development.
Leadership Resilience in the Face of Adversity
Resilience is a key trait in effective leadership. Jeng Yah's character epitomizes resilience as she faces and overcomes challenges in the kretek industry. Her ability to navigate adversity, learn from setbacks, and continue leading with determination aligns with the resilience theory of leadership. This portrayal not only showcases Jeng Yah's strength but also emphasizes the broader idea that resilience is an integral aspect of successful leadership, irrespective of gender.
"Gadis Kretek" transcends the boundaries of conventional storytelling by providing a rich tapestry of leadership through the lens of a woman in a family business. The series, when analyzed through established leadership frameworks, reveals Jeng Yah as a multifaceted leader who defies stereotypes, adapts to various situations, and embodies authenticity and resilience.