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Bagaimana Perusahaan dapat Memotivasi Karyawan dengan Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow


29 September 2022
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Salah satu konsep yang cukup populer untuk memotivasi karyawan dalam manajemen sumber daya manusia adalah Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need). Disampaikan oleh Abraham Maslow pada tahun 1943 dalam sebuah publikasi berjudul A Theory of Human Motivation, Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow menjadi salah satu teori yang sering didiskusikan dalam berbagai sekolah bisnis untuk membantu para manajer dan profesional memahami apa yang memotivasi karyawan mereka--dan bagaimana mereka dapat menggunakannya untuk mempertahankan karyawan berprestasi. 

Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow sendiri awalnya terdiri atas lima faktor motivasi: kebutuhan fisik (physiological needs), memperoleh rasa aman (safety needs), merasa menjadi bagian dari suatu kelompok sosial (belonging), merasa dihargai (esteem), dan menunjukkan aktualisasi diri (self actualisation). Kebutuhan ini bersifat berjenjang, dengan kebutuhan fisik berada di dasar piramida, dan kebutuhan aktualisasi diri di puncak  piramida, dengan kebutuhan yang berada di  bagian lebih atas tidak akan dapat dipenuhi sebelum kebutuhan yang berada di bawahnya terpenuhi. Pada perkembangan selanjutnya, Maslow melakukan penyesuaian atas hierarki kebutuhannya, seperti menambahkan transendensi diri (self transcendence) di bagian paling atas piramida dan menghilangkan prasyarat kebutuhan yang lebih bawah harus sepenuhnya terpenuhi. Seorang individu atau karyawan, dengan demikian, dapat memiliki kebutuhan akan dan dan merasa dihargai secara bersamaan. 

Secara lebih sederhana, hierarki kebutuhan ini dibagi menjadi 3, yakni kebutuhan dasar (basic needs), kebutuhan psikologis (psychological needs), dan kebutuhan pemenuhan diri (self-fulfillment needs). Kebutuhan dasar terdiri atas kebutuhan fisik dan rasa aman, kebutuhan psikologis terdiri atas kebutuhan sosial dan merasa dihargai,sementara kebutuhan pemenuhan diri terdiri atas aktualisasi diri dan transendensi diri.  

 

Kebutuhan Dasar: Kebutuhan Fisik dan Kebutuhan Atas Rasa Aman

Kebutuhan dasar berada di posisi terendah dalam Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow, dan mencakup Kebutuhan Fisik dan Kebutuhan akan Rasa Aman. Kebutuhan fisik mencakup diantaranya makanan, kehangatan, dan istirahat, sementara kebutuhan akan rasa aman mencakup di antaranya adalah jaminan dan keselamatan.  Dalam konteks tempat kerja, kebutuhan dasar dapat diterjemahkan menjadi gaji/insentif yang cukup untuk dapat memperoleh makanan dan tempat tinggal, jam kerja dan beban kerja yang proporsional, kemudahan cuti dan istirahat, kejelasan atas status ketenagakerjaan, adanya jaminan kesehatan dan ketenagakerjaan, ketersediaan alat dan fasilitas untuk mendukung tugas, dan lingkungan kerja yang sehat serta aman. 

Pada umumnya, setiap karyawan memiliki kebutuhan dasar dalam intensitas dan periode yang berbeda. Sebagai contoh, seseorang yang baru meniti karier mungkin sangat mementingkan nominal gaji, tetapi, sepanjang waktu, ia akan memiliki kebutuhan lain yang lebih penting (seperti kebutuhan atas kelompok sosial dan merasa dihargai). Atau seorang karyawan senior yang  baru saja mengalami musibah mungkin akan memprioritaskan rasa aman dibandingkan yang lain. Apabila karyawan mempersepsikan bahwa perusahaan tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan dasar, atau bahkan membuat mereka kesulitan memenuhi kebutuhan dasar tersebut (seperti beban kerja yang terlalu berat sehingga membuat mereka tidak bisa beristirahat, atau lingkungan kerja yang tidak aman/tidak sehat, baik secara fisik maupun psikologis), maka mereka akan lebih mungkin untuk meninggalkan tempat kerja mereka. Menjadi penting bagi manajer untuk dapat memastikan agar lingkungan kerja dan organisasi dapat memenuhi kebutuhan dasar karyawan

 

Kebutuhan Psikologis: Kebutuhan Sosial dan Kebutuhan akan Penghargaan

Kebutuhan Psikologis memiliki posisi lebih tinggi dalam  Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow adalah Kebutuhan Sosial dan Kebutuhan akan Penghargaan. Kebutuhan sosial mencakup diantaranya  kebutuhan untuk tergabung dalam suatu kelompok sosial, kebutuhan untuk menjalin pertemanan, dan kebutuhan untuk merasakan emosi positif bersama dengan orang lain. Adapun kebutuhan akan penghargaan mencakup di antaranya apresiasi atas prestasi atau penyelesaian tugas, rasa hormat dari orang lain, dan juga kesempatan untuk menunjukkan maupun memperoleh pengetahuan maupun pencapaian. Dalam konteks tempat kerja, kebutuhan psikologis dapat diterjemahkan sebagai peluang untuk bersosialisasi dan menjalin hubungan yang positif dengan atasan, bawahan, dan rekan kerja, kesempatan untuk berkontribusi dalam suatu tim / kelompok yang berkaitan dengan pekerjaan maupun luar pekerjaan, kesempatan untuk menjalin jaringan di dalam maupun luar organisasi, apresiasi atau pujian atas pencapaian yang diperoleh, kesempatan untuk memperoleh pelatihan dan pengembangan serta menerapkan hasilnya di dalam pekerjaan, serta kesempatan atas kemajuan karier di masa mendatang. 

Kebutuhan psikologis pada umumnya baru akan muncul apabila karyawan sudah merasa kebutuhan dasarnya terpenuhi. Apabila karyawan merasa bahwa gajinya sudah dapat memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya dan bahwa pekerjaan maupun lingkungan kerjanya cukup aman, maka mereka akan mulai mengembangkan kebutuhan-kebutuhan psikologis ini. Mereka akan mulai merasa ingin dilibatkan sebagai bagian dari tim maupun organisasi secara keseluruhan, mencari komunitas di mana mereka bisa menjalin hubungan informal, mencari kesempatan di mana mereka bisa bergabung dan berkontribusi dalam suatu tim kerja, mengeksplorasi project dan target, mencari peluang-peluang pengembangan keterampilan dan karier, serta mengharapkan apresiasi dari orang lain di sekitarnya atas proses dan pencapaian yang ia peroleh. 

Karyawan yang berorientasi pada kebutuhan psikologis pada umumnya lebih berminat untuk berkontribusi dalam tim, lebih siap menerima stretch goal, dan memiliki harapan untuk  dikembangkan ke tahap karir yang lebih jauh. Apabila manajer maupun perusahaan tidak dapat menangkap kebutuhan ini dan membiarkan karyawan tersebut tidak terapresiasi, maka, ia mungkin akan kehilangan minat untuk bekerja lebih lanjut dan mulai mencari perusahaan lain yang dapat mengapresiasi dirinya sesuai dengan apa yang diharapkan. 


 

Kebutuhan Pemenuhan Diri: Kebutuhan akan Aktualisasi Diri dan Transendensi Diri

Kebutuhan akan Pemenuhan Diri menempati posisi tertinggi dalam Hierarki Kebutuhan Maslow, dan pada umumnya, baru akan mulai muncul dalam diri seseorang apabila kebutuhan dasar dan kebutuhan psikologisnya sudah terpenuhi. Kebutuhan atas aktualisasi diri umumnya melibatkan minat untuk dapat memberikan kontribusi dan dampak yang signifikan terhadap organisasi, di mana individu dapat mengaktualisasikan potensi atau kapabilitas yang ia miliki. Kebutuhan atas transendensi diri berada lebih jauh dari aktualisasi diri, di mana mereka melihat dari perspektif yang lebih luas, di mana mereka memberikan inspirasi kepada organisasi maupun karyawan lain. Dalam konteks situasi tempat kerja, kebutuhan pemenuhan diri dapat diterjemahkan sebagai kesempatan untuk mengelola dan memimpin tim kerja atau project besar, implementasi atas usulan inovasi dan pengembangan berkelanjutan, dan kesempatan untuk berbagi, membimbing/mengarahkan, dan menginspirasi orang lain.

Karyawan yang berorientasi pada kebutuhan pemenuhan diri pada umumnya merupakan talenta yang perlu dipersiapkan menjadi calon pemimpin potensial di masa mendatang. Aktualisasi diri pada umumnya hanya dapat dicapai oleh sedikit karyawan, sehingga manajer dan perusahaan perlu memastikan agar karyawan tersebut dapat diberdayakan dan memberdayakan. Apabila perusahaan menemui karyawan dengan orientasi kebutuhan pemenuhan diri, maka perusahaan dapat mulai memberikan penugasan dan memberikan kesempatan atas implementasi gagasan yang membuatnya merasa dapat berkontribusi bukan hanya pada dirinya sendiri, tapi pada pihak yang lebih luas.

Memahami apa yang memotivasi karyawan untuk dapat dengan baik mengerjakan pekerjaanya merupakan suatu hal yang perlu dilakukan oleh perusahaan untuk membantu baik karyawan maupun perusahaan mencapai kesuksesan dalam kinerja. Identifikasi ini dapat dilakukan melalui asesmen potensi, sedangkan asesmen lebih lanjut seperti assessment center akan sangat bermanfaat dalam memahami motivasi karyawan secara lebih menyeluruh.

 

Artikel ditulis oleh Herjuno Tisnoaji, Resident Assessor prasmul-eli

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One of the determining factors for company stability and success is employee engagement. Behind the company's reputation and success as seen from the outside, it cannot be denied that the active role of the employees is also involved.

So, what is included in employee engagement as an effective HR strategy to support successful company branding?

This concept, which was first popularized by  Gallup Consultants in 2004, is an attempt to understand the relationship between companies and their employees. This thing can be measured both qualitatively and quantitatively.

So what is its role that is called one of the efforts that HR can make to build the success and stability of the company? Read this article to the end to understand the concept, okay?

The Important Role of Employee Engagement

Even though the aim is to contribute to the success and maintain the stability of the company, employee engagement can be seen from two sides, namely the perspective of the company and the employee.

From a company perspective, employee engagement is an effort to assess how loyal employees are at work. This loyalty is not only assessed based on the work completed, but also includes the duration of the work and its quality.

Apart from that, companies also want to know whether employees feel proud of what they do for the company.

Meanwhile, from an employee's perspective, employee engagement is an effort to realize their role in the company. This needs to be known so that the company can continue to support employees so that they remain enthusiastic about working.

Apart from that, it can also foster a sense of having contributed to the company while working at the company.

It can be concluded that employee engagement is not only concerned with the company, but also seen from the employee's perspective. However, basically there is only one goal, namely to help maintain the stability and success of the organization within the company.

Strategy to Increase Employee Engagement

There are several strategies for increasing employee engagement within the company. This strategy certainly needs to be tried for those of you who want to measure how successful this concept is in the company.

The following is the strategy:

Intense Communication

Establishing intense communication can foster a sense of trust between the company and employees, as well as team members and managers. In employee engagement, communication needs to be two-way and intense to understand the company's position and employee opinions.

Some examples of building intense communication are as follows:

  • Hold regular meetings to share important matters within the company and let employees understand the state of the company.
  • Create communication channels that are easily accessible, for example mailing lists, communication groups for short messages or groups on the office communication channels used.
  • Create a digital form for suggestions and criticism when the company holds activities for employees. This is useful for understanding whether employees enjoy or have other input for the program provided.

Rewarding Positive Contributions

Getting to know employees well, appreciating achievements and providing opportunities for self-development is one of the employee engagement efforts. With this, employees feel more positively appreciated and motivated to work harder or be more comfortable in the company.

Opportunities for Self-Transformation

In an era of intense business competition, giving employees the opportunity to transform themselves can be an employee engagement effort provided by the company. By providing opportunities for self-transformation for employees, it can make employees more persistent and improve their skills.

This can certainly help the company in the end. Some examples of self-transformation opportunities for employees are as follows:

  • Providing challenging projects for employees who like challenges at work.
  • Organize training both according to duties and to develop other skills.
  • Make a clear career plan for each employee so that they have a clear picture and make their performance better and more enthusiastic.

Benefits of Employee Engagement

In general, the benefits of employee engagement are improving work results in the company. However, there are several quite significant benefits that can be generated by people engagement as an HR strategy, namely;

Absenteeism Rates Decreased

Employees who feel engaged or feel connected tend to be loyal to their jobs and the company where they work. This is because he may be more motivated and also find the work environment pleasant.

Positive engagement between employees and the company will help improve the percentage of employee attendance.

Increasing Employee Production

What makes a significant difference with employee engagement? Another thing that is quite profitable is increasing the production of employee work.

If this can be applied to the majority of employees, it can certainly speed up the process of realizing the company's vision and mission.

Extending Employee Service Period

Employees will tend to stay in a company if they feel appreciated. This way of appreciating employees is one of the employee engagement efforts.

Employees who feel involved and appreciated will be more enthusiastic about working. As a result, employees will stay in a company for a long time because they believe they can grow together.

Employee engagement is only one of the efforts made by the company through HR. To do this requires skills in leadership and resource management.

These two things are important points and can be learned at prasmul-eli!

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In a company, changes can result in decreased work productivity and even losses. Therefore, proper change management is needed.

There are several types of frameworks that you can use to ensure changes in your business can be implemented and accepted well. In this article we will explain in full about change management.

What is Change Management?

Change management is a systematic step that companies must take in implementing organizational, operational changes, and the technology adaptation process. In other words, companies must ensure change continues while encouraging employees to take part in it.

According to TechTarget, change within a company, on any scale, can cause stress and discomfort. Decreased productivity and job satisfaction are only a small part of the negative impacts of messy change.

Before making changes within your company, you should consider the following:

  • Impact of changes on operations and employee conditions.
  • Prepare clear stages and implementation schedule.
  • Document all stages and change processes so that nothing is missed.

All of the above considerations will form the right change management plan. You can also choose a framework that suits the type of change and all employees.

Benefits of Change Management

If the company has a structured and systematic change management plan, the following are a number of benefits that will be felt:

For companies

  • Complete system and documentation.
  • Ensure the similarity of expected and occurring changes.
  • Automation systems can be adopted precisely and quickly.
  • Can identify what needs to be changed and eliminated.
  • Can determine infrastructure whose function can be changed.

For employees

  • Understand the reasons and solutions carried out by the company in the change process.
  • Understand the role and impact that can be provided during the change process.
  • Equalize the perspective and feelings of each employee towards change.
  • Understanding that his and the company's future is on the same path.
  • Can compare expectations and facts of changes that will occur.

Types of Change Management Frameworks

As mentioned above, there are several types of change management frameworks to ensure a smooth process. Summarizing Apty, here are four frameworks commonly used by companies in carrying out change management.

Kotter change management

This framework was popularized by Harvard professor John Kotter. The process he introduced is popular and has been used by many companies since 1996.

Kotter divides the change management process into eight important steps.

  1. Create urgency for change.
  2. Building collaboration within the organization to support change.
  3. Create a strategic and realistic vision.
  4. Can convey the vision well and clearly.
  5. Encourage various parties to take part in the process.
  6. Celebrate all small and short-term achievements.
  7. Maintain the duration and speed of the change process.
  8. Cultivate and form a corporate culture within the company.

When creating urgency for a change, you must be able to convey the reasons and the problem you are trying to solve. Make sure this information is conveyed transparently to employees.

Lewin's change management model

This change management model is quite simple, Lurt Lewin describes the following three phases.

Unfreeze

This phase is used to map out what needs to be changed and what kind of preparation is needed. In detail, pay attention to the following three things:

  • Decide what to change.
  • Analyze the company's current operations and what changes need to be made.
  • Communicate changes transparently.

Change

This phase is when all changes begin to be implemented. Make sure these two things are done:

  • Ensure all employees understand the positive impact of change.
  • Provide training and time for employees to adapt.

Refreeze

This final phase is to ensure the changes are implemented correctly. Three things to do are:

  • Convey again the goals and impacts that will occur from changes to the company's internal processes.
  • Ensure company stability during and after changes.
  • Celebrate success and success in making changes.

PDSA

This change management is a framework that prioritizes continuity. This means that even though changes have been implemented, the process will continue to be optimized and developed. The PDSA stages are:

  • Plan – Identify changes and develop a plan.
  • Do – Make changes from the smallest scale.
  • Study – Analyze the results of changes and identify successful patterns that need to be corrected.
  • Act – Make decisions and implement changes based on analysis and lessons learned.

This change management helps companies and employees to remain flexible and develop.

ADKAR model from Prosci

This framework prioritizes perceived outcomes in change management. Prosci outlined these five results or achievements:

  • Awareness – Company management explains the changes that will occur and their causes.
  • Desire – Leaders and managers ask for employee support through case studies and facts about company conditions. It is recommended to conduct 1-on-1s to understand employee opinions and concerns.
  • Knowledge – Changes are implemented thoroughly. Companies must hold training to support employees in adapting.
  • Ability – Employees will begin to apply changes in their daily work.
  • Reinforcement – ​​Give appreciation to employees for implementing and making the change a success.

Steps to Perform Change Management

If you look at the various frameworks above, the key steps for effective change management are:

Open-minded leader

Quoting Asis Online, feelings of frustration and uncertainty in change can be overcome by a company that can embrace all parties and be open. Internal stakeholders, clients, employees and consumers must receive a complete explanation and understand the new steps the company will take. The right leader will ensure all of those things happen.

Involvement of all related parties

Still related to the previous point, change requires help from all parties in the company. Every team, stakeholder and employee must work together to carry out and support the change process.

Open and clear communication

It can be concluded from the various frameworks above, transparent, intensive, effective and personal communication can help the change process run smoothly.

Change-related training

Employees must receive training and be given realistic time to adapt to changes. Managers can hold 1-on-1 sessions to check on employee conditions.

Clear success metrics

The final step is to determine realistic and clear targets for success. Frustration and uncertainty can result from metrics that are “too high” or impossible to achieve in a short time frame.

That is a summary of change management so that companies can avoid problems that could have a bad impact.

Through proper change management, the mission and vision of leaders and employees will be united. Therefore, change management is a process that must be prepared carefully.

Before making a decision, you should first study the change process and management.

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Customer Relationship: Meaning, Benefits, Types, How to Build, and the Difference from Customer Service
17 June 2024

The relationship between business and consumers must be a primary concern and continue to be maintained. Building strong customer relationships is one way.

Consumers always expect business commitment to provide the best products and services. Consumer loyalty is a result that will be directly proportional to business profits.

In this article, you will learn in depth about customer relationships, from the meaning, benefits, types, to how to build them.

What is Customer Relationship?

Customer relationship is a method used by companies to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty. This method, citing HubSpot, requires companies to proactively provide the best service, solutions to consumer problems, and ensure their needs are met.

Companies with the best products or services are not limited to what they sell. Because today's consumers also want to know the image of the product and the level of company awareness after the product or service is purchased.

Therefore, strong customer relationships will ensure business success in the future.

Benefits of Customer Relationships

In addition from bringing business success, also know the benefits of customer relationships in your business in the short and long term.

  • Consumer loyalty to buy any product sold.
  • Know and understand consumer needs.
  • Becomes important capital in making business decisions.
  • Understand what problems they face and how the product can help them.
  • Improve the overall reputation and image of the company.
  • Make your brand or business at the top of consumers' minds.
  • Improve customer experience and satisfaction.
  • Creating opportunities for businesses to have more diverse products.

Types of Customer Relationships

Depending on the business, type of product, and type of consumer, there are three types of customer relationships. Summarizing HiverHQ, here is the complete explanation:

Proactive customer relations

Proactive customer relations is directly building customer relationships proactively. Companies must contact consumers before any complaints or problems occur. From the start, companies must:

  • know who the consumers are
  • what are the needs
  • what is the thought process before buying
  • what kind of product is expected
  • what image is expected
  • understand how to keep them satisfied

You can run this type with a variety of rewarded surveys. Make sure the survey is run consistently, for example every quarter (3 months).

Reactive customer relations

Different from the previous type, reactive customer relations is a way for businesses to respond to, understand and resolve problems experienced by consumers. Therefore, you must know all the problems and complaints that consumers convey in various forms and platforms.

Several strategies that businesses can implement to produce positive reactive customer relations include:

  • Validate consumer complaints and input.
  • Apologize and make sure the business is ready to resolve the complaint.
  • Understand the problem and offer the best solution.
  • Follow up even though the problem has been resolved and show concern.

Strategic customer relations

Strategic customer relations means that the company's culture and references are based on consumer needs and satisfaction. Every product made is always confirmed and tested by loyal consumers. Usually this type is carried out by companies that already have a special image in general.

How to Build Customer Relationships

Follow these steps to build good customer relationships:

Build a strong foundation in communication

Good relationships are based on clear and open communication. Convey all information as it is and use sentences that are easy to understand. Avoid jargon or difficult words.

Be realistic and don't lie

Don't give false and unrealistic hopes. Make sure the solution offered makes sense and can be done easily by consumers.

Receive and collect input from consumers

Always record and pay attention to every input, suggestion, and complaint submitted. Use this as a reference for development and solving various problems.

Track the problem resolution process

As long as the problem is not resolved, consumers should not have to report the same thing again. Also track the problem resolution process with the relevant team. Continue to convey how far your team is working.

Anticipate consumer needs

Even though the problem has been resolved, consumers will continue to use your product or service. By understanding consumer habits and profiles, create a list of needs that may arise in the future.

Make the relationship more personal

Make consumers feel like you are a friend who helps them solve problems. You can also call consumers by name in each communication process.

Monitor consumer changes

Monitor consumer changes and check for possible problems that may occur. These problems can be related to how the product works, the taste of the product, the impact of the product on consumers, and even the image of the product.

Competitor analysis

Find out how they build relationships with consumers. Especially competitors in the same industry. You can build stronger and better relationships to attract new consumers.

Understand market changes

Understand market changes and consumer needs. Changes that occur in the economy, ways of thinking, and needs will influence the company's customer relationship strategy.

Reach new consumers

Reach potential consumers who can become loyal consumers in the future. You can expand the range of services or products marketed or add product lines.

Difference between Customer Relationship and Customer Service

In short, here are the basic differences between customer relationship and customer service:

  • Customer service focuses on the process of solving consumer problems directly.
  • Meanwhile, customer relationship focuses on the process of building and maintaining long-term relationships with consumers.

Both play an important role in business and consumer relationships.

Customer relationship is a concrete step to ensure consumers continue to use your product in the long term.

Building customer relationships requires time and the right strategy.

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