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Understanding Stockout Cost, It's Cause, and How to Manage It


10 November 2022
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Pada sudut pandang konsumen barang yang out of stock pada e-commerce akan menimbulkan kekecewaan. Bagi pelaku bisnis, tidak tersedianya barang yang ditawarkan merupakan hilangnya kesempatan untuk mendapatkan keuntungan. 

Pembeli pada situs atau aplikasi online biasanya mencari spesifik produk yang memang pasti akan dibeli. Ketersediaan produk yang ditawarkan dapat memanfaatkan konsumen yang mengunjungi toko Anda pada saat itu. Jika produk kehabisan stok terus-menerus, dampaknya dapat menyebabkan penurunan potensi penjualan, hilangnya konsumen, dan menghambat pertumbuhan bisnis.

Apa itu Stockout?

Stockout adalah sebuah situasi di mana inventaris tidak tersedia, mencegah sebuah barang untuk dibeli atau dikirim, yang dapat mengakibatkan kerugian dalam penjualan. Biaya stockout atau kehabisan persediaan dapat berdampak pada bisnis baik dalam jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang.

Stockout cost atau biaya kehabisan persediaan adalah modal yang hilang dari persediaan dan menjadi tidak tersedia untuk dapat dibeli oleh pelanggan. Ketika pelanggan tidak dapat membeli sesuatu karena tidak ada stok, maka dapat berarti pula sebuah bisnis kehilangan uangnya. Hal ini sangat merugikan bisnis jika tidak ada indikasi kapan barang tersebut akan tersedia kembali dan tersedia untuk dibeli.

Apa Penyebab Stockout?

Terjadinya stock out dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai macam hal. Beberapa faktor seperti meremehkan permintaan pelanggan, keterlambatan dari pemasok, dan kurangnya dana untuk membeli persediaan baru dapat menjadi penyebab habisnya persediaan sebuah produk.

Seringkali stockout tidak dapat dihindari dan di luar kendali Anda. Contohnya pada kasus sistem produksi yang terlambat, permasalahan pada pengiriman, invoice atau faktur yang belum dibayar, atau human error yang dapat berdampak pada tingkat inventaris. 

Jika beberapa hal keterlambatan tersebut sering terjadi, Anda perlu mempertimbangkan untuk beralih ke pemasok lain untuk meningkatkan supply chain management. Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan bekerja sama dengan pihak ketiga atau vendor dan menggunakan alat untuk membantu dalam memperkirakan stok.

Pengaruh Stockout Cost terhadap Bisnis

Stockout dapat mempengaruhi pengalaman konsumen secara signifikan dan hal ini adalah sesuatu yang harus dihindari. Adanya stock out dapat menimbulkan kekecewaan, tidak hanya bagi pemilik bisnis tetapi juga bagi konsumen yang sudah siap untuk membeli. Pada akhirnya, ini menyebabkan hilangnya pendapatan dan berpotensi dapat merusak reputasi brand dan memengaruhi beberapa hal berikut ini.

  1. Kehilangan konsumen dan beralih ke pesaing

Jika Anda mengalami stockout, tidak hanya adanya penurunan besar dalam konversi karena tidak ada yang bisa dibeli, tetapi konsumen kemungkinan besar juga akan membeli barang yang sama dari pesaing Anda. Selanjutnya konsumen akan terus melakukan pembelian dari pesaing Anda.

Setelah adanya pengalaman yang tidak menyenangkan karena stockout, peluang konsumen untuk kembali bertransaksi ke toko Anda menjadi kecil. 91% konsumen tidak mau kembali ke online store yang memberikan pengalaman tidak menyenangkan bagi mereka. Tidak heran jika stockout kemudian dapat berdampak besar pada potensi pertumbuhan bisnis.

Jika produk yang kehabisan stok sulit didapat, beberapa konsumen bersedia mengaktifkan notifikasi untuk pemberitahuan kembalinya stok produk. Ini merupakan strategi bagus untuk mengingatkan dan mendorong konsumen untuk membeli saat barang tersedia kembali. Walaupun hal ini tidak menjamin konversi penjualan di masa mendatang.

  1. Membayar untuk pemesanan yang dibatalkan

Permasalahan terjadi ketika konsumen sudah melakukan pembayaran tetapi pada kenyataannya barang yang dibeli tidak tersedia, dibandingkan jika konsumen mengetahui bahwa produk yang akan mereka beli out of stock sebelum melakukan pembayaran. Hal ini mungkin terjadi ketika stok tidak dikelola dengan baik dan penghitungan jumlah ketersediaan barang tidak akurat.

Jika hal ini terjadi, Anda harus berkontak dengan konsumen untuk memberikan kabar buruk dan menawarkan refund atau pengembalian dana. Biaya pesanan yang dibatalkan dapat bertambah seiring dengan berjalannya waktu.

  1. Ulasan Negatif

Ulasan negatif dari konsumen dan tingkat kepuasan rendah yang dirasakan oleh konsumen dapat menghancurkan bisnis online Anda. Jika konsumen sering melihat produk Anda habis, mereka dapat meninggalkan ulasan negatif di situs atau laman situs pihak ketiga. 

Calon konsumen dapat melihat ulasan ini dan mungkin menganggap merek Anda tidak dapat diandalkan. Ulasan negatif memberikan keuntungan bagi pesaing atau merek yang menjual produk serupa. Tidak hanya itu, kompetitor juga bisa mencari kelemahan dari brand Anda dan memanfaatkannya.

Cara Menghindari Stockout dari Biaya Bisnis E-Commerce

Menghindari situasi out of stock merupakan hal yang penting bagi merek yang langsung bertransaksi dengan konsumennya. Konsumen dapat mencari alternatif dari merek Anda jika barang yang Anda tawarkan tidak tersedia. Anda tidak hanya kehilangan penjualan dan menurunkan nilai pesanan rata-rata, tetapi juga dapat kehilangan calon konsumen dan pelanggan lama untuk selamanya, yang tentu saja berdampak pada nilai seumur hidup konsumen Anda. Berikut adalah beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk menghindari stockout demi kesuksesan bisnis Anda:

  1. Hitung Safety Stock

Safety stock atau stok pengaman adalah kelebihan produk yang Anda simpan jika terjadi keadaan darurat atau kegagalan rantai pasokan retail yang menyebabkan penurunan tingkat persediaan. Untuk menghitung stok pengaman secara akurat, diperlukan hal-hal berikut untuk setiap SKU:

  • Penggunaan maksimal harian

  • Waktu tunggu maksimal (pengiriman pemasok)

  • Penggunaan rata-rata harian

  • Waktu tunggu rata-rata (pengiriman pemasok)

Setelah memiliki data inventaris untuk setiap SKU, maka langkah yang dapat dilakukan selanjutnya adalah:

  • Langkah 1:

Hitung maksimal = (penggunaan maksimal harian x waktu tunggu maksimal)

  • Langkah 2:

Hitung rata-rata = (penggunaan rata-rata harian x waktu tunggu rata-rata)

  • Langkah 3:

Kurangi jumlah rata-rata dari jumlah maksimal untuk perhitungan stok pengaman lengkap = (Langkah 1) - (Langkah 2)

  1. Forecast untuk Permintaan di Kemudian Hari

Merencanakan permintaan dapat menjadi sulit, tapi hal tersebut bukan hal yang tidak mungkin untuk dilakukan. Dengan menggunakan historis data inventaris untuk memprediksi tren penjualan di masa mendatang, Anda dapat membuat keputusan yang lebih baik tentang berapa banyak inventaris yang Anda butuhkan dalam stok pada waktu tertentu.

Misalnya, Anda dapat menggunakan data seperti jumlah produk yang dijual selama musim atau hari (libur) tertentu untuk membuat keputusan kapan perlu memesan lebih banyak stok daripada biasanya. Demikian pula, jika permintaan produk menurun, Anda mungkin perlu merencanakan pengurangan stok dan memiliki lebih sedikit stok pengaman untuk menghindari terlalu banyak modal kerja yang terikat dalam inventaris.

Mengenali jenis tren ini akan membantu Anda mempersiapkan perubahan dalam penjualan sekaligus mengoptimalkan kontrol terhadap inventaris dan penyimpanan inventaris pada operasional.

  1. Berinvestasi dalam Manajemen Inventori

Penting untuk memastikan level inventori yang tepat tetap tersedia untuk memenuhi permintaan konsumen dan juga sesuai dengan anggaran biaya. Tidak memiliki persediaan yang cukup untuk memenuhi pesanan dan memenuhi permintaan konsumen bukanlah hal yang baik. Namun, tidak bijak pula jika memiliki terlalu banyak persediaan. 

Hal ini dapat menyebabkan biaya penyimpanan persediaan yang lebih tinggi serta ‘dead stock’ yaitu kadaluarsa, usang, atau di luar musim. Dampak negatif pada laba perusahaan dapat muncul karena tidak adanya manajemen inventori yang tepat. Anda dapat menggunakan software yang membantu manajemen inventori dan disesuaikan dengan anggaran perusahaan.

Mencegah stockout sebaiknya dijadikan salah satu prioritas utama dalam bisnis e-commerce Anda. Hal terbaik yang dapat Anda lakukan adalah fokus untuk mengoptimalkan rantai pasokan sehingga Anda dapat mengelola inventaris dengan lebih baik dan mempersiapkan permintaan di kemudian hari.

Peranan teknologi dapat membantu menciptakan rantai pasok yang lebih cepat, lebih hemat dan lebih baik serta strategi ekosistem. Seiring dengan tumbuhnya toko online yang semakin bergantung pada distribusi dan logistik, program Supply Chain Management dapat membantu para eksekutif perusahaan menentukan strategi perusahaan yang didukung rantai pasok andal.

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Employee Engagement, One of the Effective HR Strategies
19 June 2024

One of the determining factors for company stability and success is employee engagement. Behind the company's reputation and success as seen from the outside, it cannot be denied that the active role of the employees is also involved.

So, what is included in employee engagement as an effective HR strategy to support successful company branding?

This concept, which was first popularized by  Gallup Consultants in 2004, is an attempt to understand the relationship between companies and their employees. This thing can be measured both qualitatively and quantitatively.

So what is its role that is called one of the efforts that HR can make to build the success and stability of the company? Read this article to the end to understand the concept, okay?

The Important Role of Employee Engagement

Even though the aim is to contribute to the success and maintain the stability of the company, employee engagement can be seen from two sides, namely the perspective of the company and the employee.

From a company perspective, employee engagement is an effort to assess how loyal employees are at work. This loyalty is not only assessed based on the work completed, but also includes the duration of the work and its quality.

Apart from that, companies also want to know whether employees feel proud of what they do for the company.

Meanwhile, from an employee's perspective, employee engagement is an effort to realize their role in the company. This needs to be known so that the company can continue to support employees so that they remain enthusiastic about working.

Apart from that, it can also foster a sense of having contributed to the company while working at the company.

It can be concluded that employee engagement is not only concerned with the company, but also seen from the employee's perspective. However, basically there is only one goal, namely to help maintain the stability and success of the organization within the company.

Strategy to Increase Employee Engagement

There are several strategies for increasing employee engagement within the company. This strategy certainly needs to be tried for those of you who want to measure how successful this concept is in the company.

The following is the strategy:

Intense Communication

Establishing intense communication can foster a sense of trust between the company and employees, as well as team members and managers. In employee engagement, communication needs to be two-way and intense to understand the company's position and employee opinions.

Some examples of building intense communication are as follows:

  • Hold regular meetings to share important matters within the company and let employees understand the state of the company.
  • Create communication channels that are easily accessible, for example mailing lists, communication groups for short messages or groups on the office communication channels used.
  • Create a digital form for suggestions and criticism when the company holds activities for employees. This is useful for understanding whether employees enjoy or have other input for the program provided.

Rewarding Positive Contributions

Getting to know employees well, appreciating achievements and providing opportunities for self-development is one of the employee engagement efforts. With this, employees feel more positively appreciated and motivated to work harder or be more comfortable in the company.

Opportunities for Self-Transformation

In an era of intense business competition, giving employees the opportunity to transform themselves can be an employee engagement effort provided by the company. By providing opportunities for self-transformation for employees, it can make employees more persistent and improve their skills.

This can certainly help the company in the end. Some examples of self-transformation opportunities for employees are as follows:

  • Providing challenging projects for employees who like challenges at work.
  • Organize training both according to duties and to develop other skills.
  • Make a clear career plan for each employee so that they have a clear picture and make their performance better and more enthusiastic.

Benefits of Employee Engagement

In general, the benefits of employee engagement are improving work results in the company. However, there are several quite significant benefits that can be generated by people engagement as an HR strategy, namely;

Absenteeism Rates Decreased

Employees who feel engaged or feel connected tend to be loyal to their jobs and the company where they work. This is because he may be more motivated and also find the work environment pleasant.

Positive engagement between employees and the company will help improve the percentage of employee attendance.

Increasing Employee Production

What makes a significant difference with employee engagement? Another thing that is quite profitable is increasing the production of employee work.

If this can be applied to the majority of employees, it can certainly speed up the process of realizing the company's vision and mission.

Extending Employee Service Period

Employees will tend to stay in a company if they feel appreciated. This way of appreciating employees is one of the employee engagement efforts.

Employees who feel involved and appreciated will be more enthusiastic about working. As a result, employees will stay in a company for a long time because they believe they can grow together.

Employee engagement is only one of the efforts made by the company through HR. To do this requires skills in leadership and resource management.

These two things are important points and can be learned at prasmul-eli!

Currently, prasmul-eli is opening a short program that will provide material regarding leadership skill development, resource management, innovation strategies and much more. The short program at Prasmul-Eli also presents presenters who are experienced in their fields.
With this, of course you will get a lot of insight. Interested in joining this program? Click this link for further information!

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Change Management: Meaning, Benefits, Framework, and Steps to Do It
18 June 2024

In a company, changes can result in decreased work productivity and even losses. Therefore, proper change management is needed.

There are several types of frameworks that you can use to ensure changes in your business can be implemented and accepted well. In this article we will explain in full about change management.

What is Change Management?

Change management is a systematic step that companies must take in implementing organizational, operational changes, and the technology adaptation process. In other words, companies must ensure change continues while encouraging employees to take part in it.

According to TechTarget, change within a company, on any scale, can cause stress and discomfort. Decreased productivity and job satisfaction are only a small part of the negative impacts of messy change.

Before making changes within your company, you should consider the following:

  • Impact of changes on operations and employee conditions.
  • Prepare clear stages and implementation schedule.
  • Document all stages and change processes so that nothing is missed.

All of the above considerations will form the right change management plan. You can also choose a framework that suits the type of change and all employees.

Benefits of Change Management

If the company has a structured and systematic change management plan, the following are a number of benefits that will be felt:

For companies

  • Complete system and documentation.
  • Ensure the similarity of expected and occurring changes.
  • Automation systems can be adopted precisely and quickly.
  • Can identify what needs to be changed and eliminated.
  • Can determine infrastructure whose function can be changed.

For employees

  • Understand the reasons and solutions carried out by the company in the change process.
  • Understand the role and impact that can be provided during the change process.
  • Equalize the perspective and feelings of each employee towards change.
  • Understanding that his and the company's future is on the same path.
  • Can compare expectations and facts of changes that will occur.

Types of Change Management Frameworks

As mentioned above, there are several types of change management frameworks to ensure a smooth process. Summarizing Apty, here are four frameworks commonly used by companies in carrying out change management.

Kotter change management

This framework was popularized by Harvard professor John Kotter. The process he introduced is popular and has been used by many companies since 1996.

Kotter divides the change management process into eight important steps.

  1. Create urgency for change.
  2. Building collaboration within the organization to support change.
  3. Create a strategic and realistic vision.
  4. Can convey the vision well and clearly.
  5. Encourage various parties to take part in the process.
  6. Celebrate all small and short-term achievements.
  7. Maintain the duration and speed of the change process.
  8. Cultivate and form a corporate culture within the company.

When creating urgency for a change, you must be able to convey the reasons and the problem you are trying to solve. Make sure this information is conveyed transparently to employees.

Lewin's change management model

This change management model is quite simple, Lurt Lewin describes the following three phases.

Unfreeze

This phase is used to map out what needs to be changed and what kind of preparation is needed. In detail, pay attention to the following three things:

  • Decide what to change.
  • Analyze the company's current operations and what changes need to be made.
  • Communicate changes transparently.

Change

This phase is when all changes begin to be implemented. Make sure these two things are done:

  • Ensure all employees understand the positive impact of change.
  • Provide training and time for employees to adapt.

Refreeze

This final phase is to ensure the changes are implemented correctly. Three things to do are:

  • Convey again the goals and impacts that will occur from changes to the company's internal processes.
  • Ensure company stability during and after changes.
  • Celebrate success and success in making changes.

PDSA

This change management is a framework that prioritizes continuity. This means that even though changes have been implemented, the process will continue to be optimized and developed. The PDSA stages are:

  • Plan – Identify changes and develop a plan.
  • Do – Make changes from the smallest scale.
  • Study – Analyze the results of changes and identify successful patterns that need to be corrected.
  • Act – Make decisions and implement changes based on analysis and lessons learned.

This change management helps companies and employees to remain flexible and develop.

ADKAR model from Prosci

This framework prioritizes perceived outcomes in change management. Prosci outlined these five results or achievements:

  • Awareness – Company management explains the changes that will occur and their causes.
  • Desire – Leaders and managers ask for employee support through case studies and facts about company conditions. It is recommended to conduct 1-on-1s to understand employee opinions and concerns.
  • Knowledge – Changes are implemented thoroughly. Companies must hold training to support employees in adapting.
  • Ability – Employees will begin to apply changes in their daily work.
  • Reinforcement – ​​Give appreciation to employees for implementing and making the change a success.

Steps to Perform Change Management

If you look at the various frameworks above, the key steps for effective change management are:

Open-minded leader

Quoting Asis Online, feelings of frustration and uncertainty in change can be overcome by a company that can embrace all parties and be open. Internal stakeholders, clients, employees and consumers must receive a complete explanation and understand the new steps the company will take. The right leader will ensure all of those things happen.

Involvement of all related parties

Still related to the previous point, change requires help from all parties in the company. Every team, stakeholder and employee must work together to carry out and support the change process.

Open and clear communication

It can be concluded from the various frameworks above, transparent, intensive, effective and personal communication can help the change process run smoothly.

Change-related training

Employees must receive training and be given realistic time to adapt to changes. Managers can hold 1-on-1 sessions to check on employee conditions.

Clear success metrics

The final step is to determine realistic and clear targets for success. Frustration and uncertainty can result from metrics that are “too high” or impossible to achieve in a short time frame.

That is a summary of change management so that companies can avoid problems that could have a bad impact.

Through proper change management, the mission and vision of leaders and employees will be united. Therefore, change management is a process that must be prepared carefully.

Before making a decision, you should first study the change process and management.

Join the prasmul-eli short program and learn about various change processes and management!
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Customer Relationship: Meaning, Benefits, Types, How to Build, and the Difference from Customer Service
17 June 2024

The relationship between business and consumers must be a primary concern and continue to be maintained. Building strong customer relationships is one way.

Consumers always expect business commitment to provide the best products and services. Consumer loyalty is a result that will be directly proportional to business profits.

In this article, you will learn in depth about customer relationships, from the meaning, benefits, types, to how to build them.

What is Customer Relationship?

Customer relationship is a method used by companies to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty. This method, citing HubSpot, requires companies to proactively provide the best service, solutions to consumer problems, and ensure their needs are met.

Companies with the best products or services are not limited to what they sell. Because today's consumers also want to know the image of the product and the level of company awareness after the product or service is purchased.

Therefore, strong customer relationships will ensure business success in the future.

Benefits of Customer Relationships

In addition from bringing business success, also know the benefits of customer relationships in your business in the short and long term.

  • Consumer loyalty to buy any product sold.
  • Know and understand consumer needs.
  • Becomes important capital in making business decisions.
  • Understand what problems they face and how the product can help them.
  • Improve the overall reputation and image of the company.
  • Make your brand or business at the top of consumers' minds.
  • Improve customer experience and satisfaction.
  • Creating opportunities for businesses to have more diverse products.

Types of Customer Relationships

Depending on the business, type of product, and type of consumer, there are three types of customer relationships. Summarizing HiverHQ, here is the complete explanation:

Proactive customer relations

Proactive customer relations is directly building customer relationships proactively. Companies must contact consumers before any complaints or problems occur. From the start, companies must:

  • know who the consumers are
  • what are the needs
  • what is the thought process before buying
  • what kind of product is expected
  • what image is expected
  • understand how to keep them satisfied

You can run this type with a variety of rewarded surveys. Make sure the survey is run consistently, for example every quarter (3 months).

Reactive customer relations

Different from the previous type, reactive customer relations is a way for businesses to respond to, understand and resolve problems experienced by consumers. Therefore, you must know all the problems and complaints that consumers convey in various forms and platforms.

Several strategies that businesses can implement to produce positive reactive customer relations include:

  • Validate consumer complaints and input.
  • Apologize and make sure the business is ready to resolve the complaint.
  • Understand the problem and offer the best solution.
  • Follow up even though the problem has been resolved and show concern.

Strategic customer relations

Strategic customer relations means that the company's culture and references are based on consumer needs and satisfaction. Every product made is always confirmed and tested by loyal consumers. Usually this type is carried out by companies that already have a special image in general.

How to Build Customer Relationships

Follow these steps to build good customer relationships:

Build a strong foundation in communication

Good relationships are based on clear and open communication. Convey all information as it is and use sentences that are easy to understand. Avoid jargon or difficult words.

Be realistic and don't lie

Don't give false and unrealistic hopes. Make sure the solution offered makes sense and can be done easily by consumers.

Receive and collect input from consumers

Always record and pay attention to every input, suggestion, and complaint submitted. Use this as a reference for development and solving various problems.

Track the problem resolution process

As long as the problem is not resolved, consumers should not have to report the same thing again. Also track the problem resolution process with the relevant team. Continue to convey how far your team is working.

Anticipate consumer needs

Even though the problem has been resolved, consumers will continue to use your product or service. By understanding consumer habits and profiles, create a list of needs that may arise in the future.

Make the relationship more personal

Make consumers feel like you are a friend who helps them solve problems. You can also call consumers by name in each communication process.

Monitor consumer changes

Monitor consumer changes and check for possible problems that may occur. These problems can be related to how the product works, the taste of the product, the impact of the product on consumers, and even the image of the product.

Competitor analysis

Find out how they build relationships with consumers. Especially competitors in the same industry. You can build stronger and better relationships to attract new consumers.

Understand market changes

Understand market changes and consumer needs. Changes that occur in the economy, ways of thinking, and needs will influence the company's customer relationship strategy.

Reach new consumers

Reach potential consumers who can become loyal consumers in the future. You can expand the range of services or products marketed or add product lines.

Difference between Customer Relationship and Customer Service

In short, here are the basic differences between customer relationship and customer service:

  • Customer service focuses on the process of solving consumer problems directly.
  • Meanwhile, customer relationship focuses on the process of building and maintaining long-term relationships with consumers.

Both play an important role in business and consumer relationships.

Customer relationship is a concrete step to ensure consumers continue to use your product in the long term.

Building customer relationships requires time and the right strategy.

Want to learn more about customer relationships and how to build them?
Join our class and learn how to build good customer relationships, click here now!